美国水域

了解联邦政府如何管理湿地和其他水域一直是一个复杂的问题, 让人困惑, and often costly issue for landowners and developers. 最近关于湿地管辖权的法院裁决和监管行动只会进一步加剧联邦政府保护和控制哪些水域的问题. 本节阐述了NAIOP关于联邦政府对生活水体的管辖权的立场,并提出了在商业房地产行业的保护和经济发展之间建立平衡的建议.

问题

1972年通过的《澳门赌场游戏网址》(CWA)管理着美国地表水的污染问题. 该法律保护“美国水域”(通常被称为“WOTUS”),但没有具体定义这一术语, instead leaving its interpretation to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The scope of WOTUS jurisdiction has been hotly contested for years, and the lack of a clear definition has caused confusion for developers. 因为它们有助于确定开发商是否必须获得昂贵和耗时的联邦许可, 例如, the rules are of critical importance to the commercial real estate industry. 

多年来,EPA和USACE曾多次尝试通过法规来定义wtus. But two Supreme Court rulings – Solid Waste Agency of Northern Cook County 在2001年, Rapanos) ——对wtus的范围的解释比之前的机构更狭窄.

In 2015 the Obama administration finalized its version of the WOTUS rule, in an attempt to end the ongoing confusion. 然而, as NAIOP argued in its comments at the time, 该规则依赖于“重要关系”测试——这是一个始于2006年的模糊术语 Rapanos) ruling – would have led to case-by-case decisions of regulatory authority, and therefore greater confusion. The 2015 rule also represented a considerable expansion of the CWA, and included many ephemeral and intermittent streams. 新规则在生效前就被法院叫停了, 但自那以后,一系列裁决使该规则在许多州重新生效, 进一步加剧了哪些水域受到联邦保护和控制的问题.

位置

NAIOP supports a definition of Waters of the United States, 或“WOTUS,“这为受监管的社区提供了一个公开的、可在现场定义的清晰的测试线. 2015年的wtus规则存在问题,因为它依赖“重要关系”的概念来确定哪些水域属于联邦管辖, 一个无定形的术语,很大程度上是根据具体情况来定义的,可以有各种解释. 此外, 一个稳定的监管制度是必要的,以便为房地产开发商提供做出长期商业决策所需的确定性. A regulation that is under constant threat of reversal or alteration at any time, and which differs from state to state, is detrimental to both businesses and regulators alike.

除了, NAIOP支持联邦湿地许可计划(第404条)的一种方法,简化和提高许可过程的效率, while protecting sensitive environmental areas. We strongly support the concept of mitigation banking, which offsets destroyed or degraded wetlands in one area with newly created, enhanced or restored wetlands elsewhere, thereby balancing the needs of developers and the environment. NAIOP反对试图增加联邦政府管理湿地的权力,并认为各州有继承的权利来保护和管理州水域,而无需联邦政府强加对水道保护作用甚微的额外法规.

状态

Under the Obama administration, in 2015 the Army Corps of Engineers and U.S. 美国环境保护署发布了一项最终规则,澄清哪些水域受《澳门赌场游戏网址》保护,并需要获得联邦许可(2015年wtus规则)。.  不久之后,美国政府宣布退出.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit issued a nationwide stay of the rule, 暂时取消新规定,因为他们考虑到,如果这些机构超出了《澳门赌场游戏网址》赋予的权限.

全国范围内的停留是, 反过来, 挑战, and in January 2018 the Supreme Court lifted the stay, causing the 2015 rule to go back into effect. 在回应, 特朗普政府通过了一项法规,将奥巴马时代的规则推迟到2020年.

2018年8月, 一名南卡罗来纳联邦法官裁定,这项拖延规定违反了《澳门赌场网址多少》, striking it down and resurrecting the 2015 WOTUS rule once again. 因为之前北达科他州和乔治亚州地方法院发布的禁令, the 2015 rule only went into effect in 26 states. 然后, 2018年9月, a judge blocked implementation of the Obama-era rule in Texas, 路易斯安那州, 爱荷华州, 和密西西比州. As things currently stand, the 2015 rule is the law of the land in 22 states. For the remaining 28 states, 该规则的一个早期版本——可以追溯到20世纪80年代末——仍然适用.

目前生效2015年wtus规则的22个州如下, 康涅狄格, 特拉华州, 夏威夷, 伊利诺斯州, 缅因州, 马里兰, 麻萨诸塞州, 密歇根, 明尼苏达州, 新汉普郡, 新泽西, 纽约, 俄亥俄州, 俄克拉何马州, 俄勒冈州, 宾西法尼亚, 罗德岛州, 田纳西州, 佛蒙特州, 维吉尼亚州和华盛顿.

In December 2018 the Trump administration released its proposed WOTUS definition, which would replace the 2015 rule. The EPA and USACE are expected to finalize the rule by September 2019. Formal repeal of the Obama-era rule is also planned for March 2019; once that happens, wtus的定义可以追溯到20世纪80年代,直到新规则最终确定为止.

谈话要点

  • We agree that all water is ultimately connected. 联邦水域(美国水域)的定义如此有争议的原因是,监管机构将这一基本原则作为保护那些不会显著影响或改变传统航道的水域的理由.
  • 联邦政府对“美国水域”的定义应反映出环境保护与经济发展之间的平衡. 它还应该努力为受监管的社区提供一个明确的标准,以确定是否需要联邦许可证.
  • The current permitting process is onerous and too bureaucratic. According to the Supreme Court’s Rapanos) decision, the average applicant for an individual permit spends 788 days and $271,596 in completing the process, and for a nationwide permit spends 313 days and $28,915.
  • NAIOP支持在404节程序中进行有针对性的更改,以便加快常规审批, 增加计划的灵活性,并在所有情况下提供更大的可预测性.

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